Introduction to Abyaneh Village
There are various villages throughout Persia, each of which has a great location and has become famous for a particular reason. One of the most well-known villages in Persia is Abyaneh village. The one at the foot of Karkas Mountain, one of the highest residential areas in the country. The village is known as one of the unique ones because of its local architecture and various historical monuments. The climate and excellent location of Abyaneh also make traveling there a sweet experience.
name of Abyaneh Village
Abyaneh is one of the ancient villages in Perisa, nicknamed the Red Spirit of Natanz because there is iron in the area’s soil, which has caused the ground to turn red and create a remarkable composition. The locals call Abyaneh, Viuna. Vi means willow, and Viyaneh means orphans. As if in the past, the Abyaneh was Willow land. The passage of time has caused Viuna to change to Avianeh and then to Abyaneh.
Architecture of Abyaneh Village
You may be interested to know that the texture of the houses dating back to the Sassanid, Seljuk, Safavid, and Qajar periods that have settled in the village is spiral; the cube residences at the foot of the mountain are stepped so that the flat roof of the lower house is the upper house’s courtyard. Without any enclosing walls, the stairs around a complex circuit like a snail shell are made of thatched facades and white arches. Also, attractive wooden windows have adorned them. Houses built in the Seljuk period without any courtyard contain a Southern 5 meters high veranda and an open space called Safeh. The houses are around them, embracing two floors; The Safehs are given more attention in the Safavid period, and each dwelling contained four Safeh. The symmetry improved in the era, plus the decorations used were different from the Seljuk period. In the Qajar era, for some reason, there is no new building same as the previous two periods, and the method of construction does not change. Furthermore, Gholam Nadershah House and Nayeb Hossein Kashi House are two prominent and spectacular houses in Abyaneh.
The Village Scheme
The alleys are narrow due to the protrusion of the porches presenting a specific charm. These alleys are planned irregularly to prevent wind flow, so there is no dead-end in Abyaneh. The old buildings are architectured on the gray mountain domain with a cover of red soil that is strengthened by rain; the clay coating will become stronger as it gets wet over time. Another feature is the fiery appearance that supplies the village at night.
The Village Warehouse
On the steep slopes of Karkas Mountain, there was not enough space to build large residences, therefore, each family has made a cave-like warehouse outside the village in the hills for keeping livestock, winter food, and unnecessary items. Crossing the corridors and alleys of Abyaneh is worth visiting there.
History of Abyaneh Village
Although there are no available and clear documents to clarify the village’s age, it is said to be the oldest human habitat on the edge of the desert plain of Persia with a history of 1500 years. This long history will be believable by looking at the ancient monuments of the village. In Abyaneh, buildings from different historical periods such as Sassanid, Seljuk, Safavid, and Qajar have been left that represent the long life of the village.
Abyaneh Fire Temple
In the past, there were three fire temples in Abyaneh called Harpak, Hershogah, and Dejatun, of which only Harpak remains. The mentioned fire temple is an example of Zoroastrian temples in mountainous communities, where, like other buildings in the village, is on a hill. Harpak is the oldest relic of Abyaneh village, having a four-arched structure made of carcass stone and gypsum in the main passage of the neighborhood. In the fire temple’s core, a sacred fire was lit by coal, and due to its distinctive architectural form, it could be seen from all over the village.
Abyaneh includes three castles named Palahamooneh, Hardeh, and Paleh. Palahamooneh Castle or Homayoun Throne is located in the southwest of Abyaneh, belongs to Yosemon and Bala neighborhoods. The castle dates back to about 200 years ago and the contribution of each person in its construction is mentioned in the castle document. Hardeh Castle is in the northeast of the village, in the Hardeh neighborhood, and Paleh Castle belongs to the Pol neighborhood on the northwest. These forts could protect the people from the insurgents when necessary, and local men took turns guarding.
The Village Mosques
Abyaneh village embraces eleven mosques. The oldest one in Abyaneh is called Mian Deh or Jameh Mosque of Abyaneh.
The Mian Deh mosque consists of two naves, the older one has a door that opens to the main alley. The floor and walls of the old nave are wooden and there is an old wooden altar inside the wall, which is one of the valuable works of Abyaneh, belonging to the year 477 AH. On the altar, the motifs of a globe besides Surah Yas are engraved with embossed Kufic lines. The wooden pulpit also belongs to the Seljuk period and the year 466 AH. There are motifs of Octopus flowers and inscriptions in the Kufic script on it. The mosque’s door also has inlaid designs. The new nave is a large hall with skylights on the roof, which contains columns with carved capitals. Also, the hall’s ceiling framed with regular geometric patterns is covered with walnut wood.
Another ancient mosque is called Parzaleh, which has a pleasant atmosphere and is engraved on the east door’s date, 701 AH, that it belongs to the Ilkhanid period. The mosque’s entrance door is the oldest one in Abyaneh. The porch of the mosque overlooks the adjacent alley. In conclusion, the second floor was built during the Safavid period, and a small nave was added during the Qajar period.
Hajatgah is another historical mosque in the village on a mountain cliff, and the date 952 AH can be seen on its nave. The mosque belongs to the Safavid period, and inhabitants probably wrote their demands by calligraphers on the upper part of the building to become true. In the. building’s surrounding area, tombstones are belonging to Safavid, Naderi, and Qajar times. The place was established during the reign of Shah Abbas Safavid and is in the Pas Khanqah neighborhood. The monastery contains a bricked facade three-storey building and a porch with multiplicative arches decorated with exquisite paintings. The monastery was a resting station for the Safavid king in summer and a gathering space for Sufis and Dervishes.
Museum of Anthropology of Abyaneh Village
The Anthropology Museum has been built on the old building of the kindergarten and laboratory of Abyaneh High School’s site, and in its construction, attention has been paid to the principles of architecture and traditional materials of the village houses. The museum maintains objects used by the locals, including cooking utensils, hunting rifles, manuscripts, ancient copies, agricultural implements, livestock accessories, silverware, local ornaments, traditional clothing, and more.
In recent years, carpet weaving has flourished in Abyaneh, and about 30 carpet workshops have been set up there. Weaving is also one of the main occupations of women in the past, which is, unfortunately, forgotten. Although the most prominent souvenirs of Abyaneh are various ornaments such as necklaces and bracelets, decorative wall hangings, carpets, and kilims are other handicrafts of the village.
Lavashak (dried fruit), high-quality dairy products, walnuts, almonds, apples, and plums are Abyaneh’s edible souvenirs. The food of Abyaneh is similar to other desert areas of Persia and is quite tasty. The local food of the village is called Gepa, which is a kind of mutton with sacrifice sheep. Another food named Carvani is prepared with ground curd, mint, and onion. Joban is a delicious dish made of a sour barely, on the other hand, Ardineh is prepared with local vegetables and doogh. Other local fares of Abyaneh village include Halimjoo, Bereshtuk, Halim Barg-e Mo, Sirabi soup, Dolmeh Barg Mo, Qaliyeh, Ash Kashk, Halva Dushab, Barley Pilaf, Potato puree, Kabjoosh, Kachi, Omach, and Eshkeneh.
The geographical location of Abyaneh village has caused the locals to be in lovely isolation, hence, many of their customs and beliefs remain intact. The residents of Abyaneh are pure and friendly. As you pass through the alleys with thatched walls, you will see the villagers in their stunning local clothes. Men wear loose-fitting black trousers and cloaks with Qaba and felt hats, while women wear gorgeous loose floral shirts with white and floral scarves. Perceiving these moments adds to the joy that can be gained from such a genuine village. During the trip to Abyaneh, the heart calms down because of the region’s originality smell.
Abyaneh language and dialect
One of the unique features of the village is the preservation of traditions and original dialect and language. The difficulties in traveling among crowded cities have caused them to maintain their language’s originality and not change. The inhabitants of the aesthetic and historical village, like other Persians, speak Persian, but they have their dialect of Abyaneh. Their attractive accent is distinctive from the other regions and other usual accents. Pahlavi’s words are still used in their dialect. Of course, this may indicate that Abyaneh is less exposed to enemy invasion than other areas. Being safe from the enemy’s attack has blessed the people, therefore, Abyaneh has become a live museum.
The main job of the villagers is agriculture, horticulture, and animal husbandry. Today, traditional methods are applied to manage affairs in Abyaneh. Their products include wheat, barley, potatoes, and various fruits, especially apples, plums, pears, apricots, almonds, and walnuts.
In the village, like in many other ones, women participate in economic affairs alongside men. Spring and summer are the best seasons to visit Abyaneh. On the other hand, Tasua and Ashura welcome guests from many parts of Persia every year. Other ceremonies that attract tourists to such a historic village are palm picking and rosewater making.