Introduction to the Mongol Tribe During the Ilkhanate Dynasty
The history of the Ilkhanate Dynasty testifies this fact that during the Mongol rule in Persia, the Persian ministers were the ones who ran the country. Those who were given the principal positions were all Persians. But the Ilkhanate Dynasty rulers ordered the assassination of all the ministers but one and confiscated their assets to make up for the budget deficit.
Various tribes lived in the eastern part of Transoxiana. “Mongols” is the name given to the community of these tribes. Some historians believe that the Mongols are the descendants of the Huns. Even if it is not right, we can at least compare their skills in archery, combat, and the use of daggers with the Huns. Genghis Khan sent several Muslim Mongol merchants with friendly messages to the Khwarezmshahis. At that time, rumors spread that they were spies all over Persia. Authorities ordered the killing of all 400 and confiscated their gifts. Later, Genghis sent a representative to Persia with a message of protest. They killed him as well. These incidents infuriated Genghis and caused him to launch a horrific and deadly invasion of the lands of the Khwarezmshahis. The Mongol army destroyed all the cities on its way.
Consequences of Genghis Khan’s Invasion of Iran
Many Persians and Iraqis were massacred in these attacks. This revenge had not only targeted the Khwarezm Shahs, but its deadly blow, on a larger, and incomparable scale, had been aimed directly at ordinary innocent people. The wars waged by Genghis Khan against Persia are among the deadliest attacks in human history, with irreparable outcomes. Before the second Mongol invasion led by Holaku, the country suffered from this invasion and its consequences for 40 years. On the other hand, Holako’s attack caused less damage to the Persian people. At the time of the Holaku, the people of the Mongol lands were more familiar with Persian culture. They knew more about their belief, so they treated these people more skillfully than during Genghis Khan’s time.
Establishment of Ilkhanate Dynasty
Holaku and his Christian wife intended to join the Crusaders to exterminate the Muslims. But Holako’s brother died, so he returned to Mongolia. He then divided the conquered lands between his sons and his obedient commanders. Now Holaku was changed, so he began to rebuild the ruins. Therefore, he founded the Ilkhanate Dynasty in Persia and declared Maragheh as the capital of this dynasty. Throughout the history of the Ilkhanids, Hulagu ruled a region that today includes Persia, eastern Iraq, western Afghanistan, and Turkmenistan. Ilkhanate means a system in which tribal chiefs control it.
Conversion of Mongols to Islam During the Ilkhanate Dynasty
The Mongols converted to Islam to impose their beliefs. Instead, they were inspired by the Persian culture. The Ilkhanids tolerated other religions and did not force anyone to convert to their confession. During the Ilkhanid period, followers of all beliefs in Persia were free to practice their religion. As a result of the Mongols’ conversion to Islam, a new trade began between East and West. The Mongols revolutionized the Silk Road. Chinese silk and Indian spices were shipped to Europe. On the other hand, European goods also entered this route. Christian missionaries also traveled to attract Mongol support for the Crusaders.
During this period, some majors such as astronomy, mathematics, and medicine grew significantly. During the Ilkhanid period, poetry and literature also flourished. Some world-renowned poets lived during this period. Hafez, Saadi, and Molavi (Rumi) are examples of these poets. We owe these achievements of Persian literature to the influence of pre-Mongol civilizations in this land. The effects of the destruction and massacres of the Mongols in Persian societies were still visible after several generations.
Ghazan Khan, the Third Ilkhanid Ruler
During the reign of Ghazan Khan, the third Ilkhanid ruler, various science and handicrafts flourished. He was knowledgeable about the history of the nations and tribes of his time. Thus, historians of the time wrote valuable books. He also ordered the construction of several large buildings such as mosques, schools, monasteries, pavilions, and public baths in his capital (Tabriz). Although the architecture of the Ilkhanate was a continuation of Seljuk’s, a new combined architectural style emerged. Also, during Ghazan Khan, the textile industry flourished in some cities such as Tabriz, Yazd, and Kerman. Western European merchants were customers of Persian fabrics. We can see the Mongolian taste in this art to some extent, which is mainly due to the simultaneous presence of the Ilkhanate in this period. Moreover, music and painting also flourished during the ruling of this dynasty.
Disputes over the throne began among the Mongols, and corruption, debauchery, and lust led to the decline of the Ilkhanids. Power struggles and various conspiracies aimed at gaining power made their government less authoritative and less credible.-