Introduction to Qajar Bathhouse
Qazvin is a city that is historically significant in Iran. One of the spectacular city attractions that bring every viewer’s attention is the Qajar Bathhouse or Anthropological Museum, a famous building in terms of architecture. Today, Qajar Bathhouse is one of the largest museums in Qazvin, where you can get acquainted with the culture and customs of the Qazvini inhabitants.
History of Qajar Bathhouse
In the past, body cleanliness mattered to Persians, so public baths were built in cities and villages; after the advancement of science, the private bath construction in homes became popular. Amir Gun Qajar constructed the oldest bathhouse of Qazvin by the famous Safavid king’s order, Shah Abbas Safavid; Although the bathhouse has been built for nearly three centuries, it remains steady and magnificent. The bath was first known as the Shah Bathhouse (King’s Bathhouse), but in the Qajar period, as the building’s architect was from the Qajar dynasty, changed the bath’s name to the Qajar Bath. Also, the Qajar bathhouse was converted into an anthropological museum after renovation in 2007.
Architecture of Qajar Bathhouse
Qajar bath consists of three main parts: Sarbineh, Miyander, and Garmkhaneh, and has two sections for men and women. The architectural principles of the place are designed based on traditional medicine, and these three principal spaces are connected through a corridor and a porch. Each bath ceilings made of domes have an artistic Jamkhaneh ( a type of window used on some dome-shaped ceilings, especially in baths ). Bathhouses were built lower than the street level in the past, and to provide light and ventilation, Jamkhanehs were designed, which in addition to efficiency, they doubled the bath’s virtue. The bathhouse’s interior includes arches and domes embellished with Rasmibandi and Yazdibandi. Also, you can see the charming tiled decorations inside with marble stone flooring.
Museum of Anthropology
Following Qajar Bathhouse’s functional change to an anthropological museum, the place was divided into three sections; ethnicities, occupations, and customs. In the upper part of the Anthropological Museum, you will see some parts of the Tat, Turk, Qazvini, and Maraghi tribes’ life. In the Myander Hall, there is a display of rituals and customs for the Qazvinis, such as Panjah Bedar; On the fiftieth day of the year, the Qazvinis spend a day in nature after the spring rains, and you will be familiar with the custom exquisitely displayed in the Qazvin Anthropological Museum. The occupations section of the museum is in the Garmkhaneh; there are various jobs demonstrations of Qazvini inhabitants from the past to the present. You can also see the paintings and drawings, showing the inhabitant’s customs.