Introduction to Saadi
Shiraz as an ancient city field with the essence of life, which is known as the cradle of rich poetry and literature, which has been the place of residence of great Persian poets, including me. Saadi Shirazi was a world-famous Persian poet and writer of the seventh AH century. The tomb of Saadi, this great Persian poet, is located next to one of the mountains north of Shiraz, with a relaxing atmosphere that attracts the lovers of this great poet every year. Walking in the relaxing atmosphere of the Saadi Tomb, which is located in one of the beautiful streets of Shiraz called Bustan, you will encounter a world that speaks to you about Persian poetry and literature. Sadie, like Hafezieh, is considered as a part of Shiraz’s identity and originality, and its astonishing construction fills the heart of every viewer with passion and love.
Saadi Shirazi Life story
He studied literature, commentary, jurisprudence, theology, and wisdom in Baghdad, the most prominent centre of science and knowledge in the Islamic world in those days. After a while, Saadi traveled as a speaker to the Levant, Morocco, Abyssinia, and the Hijaz. Then he returned to Shiraz, stayed in the city until the end of his life. Saadi Shirazi, one of the greatest poets of Persia, certainly is one of the top five poets, whose beauty of speech in Persian language, eloquence in poetry and prose is world-famous. He calls himself a naive who does not know much about life, however, he has lived for 50 years.
His lyric poetry about morality and mysticism is spectacular and attractive that no one has ever been able to compose such exquisite lyrics. The books of the great poet have also been translated into European languages; To the extent that some believe that Europe knew Persian literature through Saadi Shirazi’s poems. For instance, Golestan Saadi’s book has been translated into French.
Mongol Invasions and Saadi Shirazi
The seventh century AH is a significant and sensitive time, especially in Persia; One of the most prominent events in Persian history is the Mongol invasion that happened almost at the beginning of this century, which changed the country’s situation a lot. Saadi was in Shiraz, and the southern half of Persia was not damaged in the first Mongol attacks, although it has not been excluded from the invasion’s effects.
A sensitive and insightful person like Saadi Shirazi could not ignore the riots of the time. He has seen the world and made trips that have been a considerable part of his life; he also witnessed events in Baghdad during his education. The Mongols also invaded there, resulting in some developments reflected in his poetry after Hulagu Khan. Saadi realized the danger that threatened the Persian originality, language, and the cultural, spiritual, and moral heritage of Persia, so he made many efforts to preserve Persian culture and literature.
Travel History of Saadi Shirazi
Saadi Shirazi was born in Shiraz in 606 AH. When he was a child, his father became his tutor. He lost his father as a child and was later raised by his mother. Saadi studied literary and religious sciences in Shiraz and then traveled to Baghdad to complete his winding journey and studied in Baghdad in the military. One of the important characteristics of Saadi was his interest, attention, and diligence in traveling as well as communicating with great people and scholars in different cities. After completing his studies, he began his long journey, traveling to the Hejaz, the Levant, Lebanon, and Rome. According to his words, he has traveled all over the world and has spent his days with everyone, enjoyed and taken a bunch from every date. Saadi Shirazi’s long journey began around 620-621 AH and ended in 655 AH with his return to Shiraz. After returning to Shiraz, he remained in Shiraz until 690 AH and composed lyric poems.
Saadi Titles in Persian Literature
He wrote his famous love poems in a fluent and simple language. Throughout history, many poets and writers have left a variety of works; but in the meantime, Saadi’s verses have a unique effect and are well-known worldly. His first name was Muslih al-Din, named after his paternal grandfather. He lost his father at the age of 12, and he has praised him in some of his works. Among the titles of Saadi Shirazi, we can mention Master of Speech, King of Speech, Sheikh Ajal, and the Master.
Saadi Shirazi Position in Persian Literature
Saadi has a high position not only in poetry, Persian literature, travel writing, and rhetoric. He also has conquered the hearts and souls of the people of this land. In the past, people washed their clothes in the pool of this tomb to be healed. Even now, the Sadie pond, which draws water from the old and sacred karez of Shiraz, is respected by the people. The sanctity and respect that is actually bestowed on this part of the Shiraz identity by Sheikh Ajal, Saadi Shirazi. One of the attractions of this place is the fish pond, which is located near the sheik’s tomb, and its water is supplied from a spring that boils from under the building.
Saadi Shirazi Works
This prominent poet, nicknamed Sheikh Ajal, lived in the 7th AH century and wrote numerous works, each of which is a large part of the treasure of Persian literature. Golestan and Bustan, as Saadi’s most famous works, have made a great contribution to the development of Persian literature. In fact, it can be said that Saadi Shirazi had tasted hot and cold of his time and was able to compose poems with such literary richness and value.
Bustan and Gulistan of Saadi
In 1257, the master of speech, Saadi Shirazi organized Saadi Nameh or Bustan (The Orchard), and a year later, in 1258, he wrote Golestan or Gulistan (The Rose Garden). The short distance between the collection of Bustan and Gulistan shows his great mastery, culture, and literature, which is worth considering. In addition to Bustan and Golestan, Saadi’s collection includes many poems, lyric poems, pieces, prepositions, quatrains, and articles. Scholars know Saadi Shirazi as one of the most influential poets in Persian literature who was the preserver of the Persian language. Due to the simplification and brevity in Saadi’s speech towards the poets and writers of his time, He is an instructor of ethics, chivalry, and a great master of love.
Saadi Shirazi Words
Saadi speaks at diverse levels, and his emphasis is on balance; His poetry has a balance between the atmosphere of sadness and joy. Saadi Shirazi praises the wealth that can grieve the poor. He also praises love, passion, and observing with adoration; in a higher realm, he reaches mystical love. At the peak of it, he loves the world; He looks at the universe with passion for God. You can percept his viewpoint on humanity, man, love, mystical love, and moral matters from the beginning to the end of Golestan and Bustan.
The Tomb of Saadi Shirazi, Saadieh
Almighty God has created limited people who achieve great names because of their good morals and deeds and Sheikh Saadi Shirazi is one of those men who has performed countless heroic deeds during his life, gained a good reputation in the world. People always benefit from his exemplary and heroic deeds. He passed away between 1291 and 1294 in Shiraz; his tomb, called Saadieh, is one of the significant tourist spots in Shiraz, situated in a pleasant garden next to the Delgosha garden (dating back to the Sassanid era). To commemorate Saadi Shirazi, Persians celebrate 21 April as Saadi National Day in Iran every year. Saadi was so famous that fifty-five years after his death, sailors sang her poems on the shores of the Great Ocean in China.
Architecture of Saadi Shirazi Tomb
Sadie was built as Karim Khan ordered in 1187 AH in the form of a luxurious two-story mansion, which was restored many times in later periods. This place, which is Saadi’s tomb, used to be a monastery and a place of worship for him and his companions. The numerous tombs next to his tomb prove this fact.
It was the beginning of the Qajar dynasty that one of the fanatical scholars of Shiraz ordered the destruction of Saadi’s tomb, stating that the reason for this was Saadi being a Sunni. After the tomb was left in ruins for some time, Ali Akbar Khan Qawam al-Molk Shirazi placed a stone in front of Saadi’s tomb. Ghavam-Ol-Molk Shirazi also engraved some of the poems of Saadi Park, which he composed in praise of Saadi, on his tomb. After that, Fath Ali Khan Sahib Divan, the son-in-law of Fath Ali Shah Qajar, in 1301 AD, ordered the restoration of this building. Then Habibullah Khan Qawam al-Mulk repaired the tomb.
Saadi Mausoleum Garden
In 1328 AH, Engineer Mohsen Foroughi and Engineer Ali Sadegh were in charge of designing the collection. This was a delightful garden design with a magnificent mansion. The idea behind the design of the Sadie monument was taken from the Chehelston Palace. Besides, new and old architectural elements were used. The collection was inaugurated in May 1931 with the presence of Dr. Mahmoud Hesabi, Ali Asghar Khan Hekmat, poets, writers, and officials. Mohsen Foroughi and Ali Akbar Sadegh built the monument in the Persian style with marble walls and azure domes. As you enter the complex and pass through the majestic trees, you’ll face a white building in front of you.
Saadieh Cubic Structure
What can be seen from Saadi’s tomb is a cubic structure, but the interior of the tomb has eight sides. There are eight brown columns in front of the tomb. Saadi tomb is located between the space of two porches perpendicular to each other. The whole roof is covered with turquoise tiles, and as it was said, the tombstone is the monument of Ali Akbar Khan Ghavam-Ol-Molk, which has a crimson red color. Throughout this octagonal space, inscriptions from Golestan, Bustan, poems, innovations, and virtues of Sheikh Ajal are written in the handwriting of Ibrahim Bouzari. Also, on the left side, the building is connected to a seven-arched portico, which leads to the tomb of Shorideh Shirazi. This tomb also has inscriptions of information and poems.