Zand Dynasty Introduction
Simultaneously with the final years of the Safavid rule over Isfahan, the Zand Dynasty led southern Iran. The Afsharid dynasty seized power by ousting the Afghan invaders, who had ended the Safavid dynasty in Isfahan. The Zand dynasty ruled Persia in the 18th century A.D after the overthrow of the Afsharid dynasty.
Zand Tribe History
The Zand tribe is from the Lur race and the Lak tribe. The dynasty was started by Karim Khan Zand, known as the people’s lawyer, in 1751 A.D. He was a military official in Nader Shah’s army, and after Nader Shah Afshar died, Karim Khan Zand also returned to the country. He had announced to everyone that he would be called the people’s lawyer and was not happy that he had the title of Shah (King) with him.
Karim Khan, Founder of Zand Dynasty
He made the city of Malayer temporarily his capital and headquarters, where he could dominate all of Persia, and then made the city of Shiraz his capital. Karim Khan Zand was able to bring all the central, northern, western, and southern parts of Persia under his power.
Shiraz flourished under Karim Khan Zand’s rule. He built many citadels, markets, baths, and mosques. He also sought to establish security and justice and promote trade and agriculture. Because of his character, the following characteristics can be attributed to him: He had a paternal personality in governing, a sense of humor, respect for the virtuous, without religious prejudice, and without superstitions.
His brother, Sadeq Khan Zand, also succeeded in separating Basra from the Ottoman Empire, thus asserting the influence of the Persian government over the Arvand River, Bahrain, and the southern islands of the Persian Gulf.
The End of the Zand Dynasty
After the death of Karim Khan Zand, there was a dispute between his successors and, with many wars and conflicts, provided the ground for strengthening and gaining the power of Agha Mohammad Khan and the Qajar dynasty. He was one of the Qajar who persistently sought the last prince of the Zand dynasty to assassinate him. Finally, Lotf Ali Khan, the final ruler of Zand, was killed by Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar in 1794 A.D after much bravery.