Introduction to Bastam Mosque
The historical city of Bastam is in Semnan province, six kilometres northeast of Shahrud, which has a long history. The city is full of various historical monuments built in different eras. Traveling to this mysterious city and watching the historic buildings is an indescribable pleasure that takes you back many years. Bastam Mosque, one of the historical and religious monuments of the city, is located 200 meters south of the tomb of Bayazid Bastami, the great mystic, and philosopher of Iran. The mosque, which dates to the 14 century A.D, was built between 1301 and 1306 A.D. The building is very prominent in terms of architecture and has been renovated many times in various historical periods. According to the present inscription, Fath-Ali Shah Qajar, the second Qajar king, restored the building and repaired the destroyed parts of the Bastam Mosque.
The architecture of Bastam mosque
As you enter, old texture and unique architecture will take you on a historical journey. The mosque architecture is of the Shabestani mosques, and the door of the mosque is made of wood and is very old. In the building, two summers and winter Shabestan are built perpendicular to each other on the east and north. In addition to the Shabestans, we can divide the architecture of the historical mosque into two parts: the first part contains the Mihrab, and the courtyard of the mosque, which is square and the space is open. The Mihrab of the mosque is in the summer Shabestan and contains stunning decoration by plaster, verses of the Quran, and Islamic and geometric designs. The summer Shabestan originally was roofless, and in the hot summers, it was pleasant here, but now it contains a roof. On the other hand, the winter Shabestans are located next to each other with many arches. In the Shabestan, you can see 10 square columns and a brick and plaster roof. The entrance Iwan of the mosque has a decoration with exquisite tiles that dazzle the eyes of every viewer. However, the rest of the mosque space is simple and unpolluted, which gives the audience a sense of calm.
Unique Mihrab of This Historical Mosque
The Mihrab of Bastam Mosque is the most stunning element of the Grand Mosque, and many people come to the mosque to see the part. The Mihrab of the Bastam Grand Mosque, also known as the Ilkhanate Mihrab, is covered with many inscriptions written in Kufic and Thuluth lines, and you can see verses from the Quran in some parts. The Mihrab has three margins with plastered expressions. Two contain verses from the Quran, and the other includes words in the Kufic script, which dates to the time of the Sunnis in Iran. In the middle of the Mihrab, you will see two rectangular squares, one of which has the word “La Ilaha Illa Allah Muhammad Rasul Allah”, and the other is “Ali Ibn Abi Talib Vali Allah”. The plastering of the second piece is entirely distinct from the first part in terms of style and writing structure. Some believe that the mosque, built in Sunni Iran, had the names Abu Bakr, Umar, and Uthman written on its Mihrab. But, after the spread of Shiism and the domination of Shiite rulers, the word “Ali Ibn Abi Talib Vali Allah” was replaced. Other parts of the Mihrab are full of Islamic and geometric motifs that have multiplied their magnificence. Apart from the Mihrab and the courtyard, there are two covered corridors on the north and east sides of the mosque, which do not have any plastering or significant works.