Who was Nader Shah
In the past, kings have played a significant role in forming the history of countries, and the rich history of Persia has seen several great kings. Nader Shah Afshar is one of the most courageous and warlike kings in history who ruled the country with authority. Mashhad is one of the cities that contains many tourist and historical spots; during the Afshari era, Nader Shah brought the center of his government to Mashhad. Nader Shah’s mausoleum is in the garden complex of the Naderi Museum, which is one of the main tourist attractions of Mashhad today.
Nader Shah As a Survivor
After the fall of the Safavid dynasty, the Afghans captured Isfahan and relied on the Persian throne for several months. Shah Tahmasp, one of Shah Sultan Hussein’s successors, asked Nader for help. Nader joined the Safavid survivors with his army and drove the Afghans out of Isfahan, clearing the country of them. Nader Shah Afshar liberated Esfahan from the Afghans and returned it to Safavids; As he did not see the Safavid king’s merit in the protection of Persia, he took the kingdom with the consent of seniors. Nader Shah Afshar was one of the great kings of the country who had defended the land, water, and reputation of the Persians and also made Persia one of the most powerful countries in the world. He was a true patriot; Nader Gholi nicknamed (Tahmasp Gholi Khan) Nader Shah is from the Afshar tribe of Khorasan, the king of Persia and the founder of the Afshari dynasty. Many historians consider him the most powerful Persian king after Islam.
Nader Shah Kingdom Story
Tahmasp Gholi Khan, known as Nader Shah Afshar, revolted from the Khorasan region and was able to suppress local claimants, Afghans, and the Ottoman Empire. Nader Shah was from the Afshar tribe of Khorasan and the founder of the Afshari dynasty in Persia, he was called the last world conqueror of the East in Europe, Alexander II, and Napoleon of Persia. In a meeting he convened in 1736 in the Mugan Plain, he proclaimed himself King of Persia, and for the first time, chose the city of Mashhad as the capital. Nader Shah suppressed all the enemies of the country and created absolute peace throughout Persia. After the conquest of India, he took the Mountain of Light (Koh-i-Noor) Diamond and immortalized his name in history.
Nader Shah Afshar, who built his first tomb in the Mashhad, after returning from the conquest of India, decided to architecture another tomb for himself in this city. Nader Shah Afshar ordered large black marble stones to be brought to Khorasan from Azerbaijan. These stones were extensive and heavy, and their transportation was so expensive. In the last years of his life, Nader built another building as a family tomb called the Sun Mansion; however, his body was not permanently buried in any of these three tombs. Nader Shah had become a strange person at the end of his life; he doubted everyone, even his children, so he blinded them. Eventually, his soldiers and relatives killed him in Quchan. His lifeless body, which was buried in one of these tombs, was transported to Tehran by Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar. Then, Ghavam al-Saltanah built a new tomb for him and moved his bones from Tehran to Mashhad. The building was erected for a long time, and finally, the new building was reopened in 1963 with the presence of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi in Naderi Garden (Bagh Naderi).
Why is he honored in Persia
In rare times, Persia became embroiled in internal uprisings, and the neighbors initially sought to seize some of Persia’s border towns; But Nader defeated them. Nader Shah defended Persia and the people with all his might in the first period of his reign. His military genius led him to free Persia from his enemies and rule Baghdad, the Ottoman capital, and the Indian subcontinent. Nader went to war with the Ottoman government several times during his reign, however, Persia’s internal uprisings did not allow him to concentrate on completing the goal. Finally, Nader Shah dominated them during three wars.
How he became pessimistic
Most of his dynasty was spent in wars. By capturing Delhi, he transferred India’s vast wealth to Persia that he could not use for the country’s prosperity. Nader Shah took many measures to establish order and peace in the country. He tried hard to cut off foreign enemies from Persia to preserve national pride and reputation. After this, Nader killed anyone who made the slightest protest against him. He was pessimistic about all those around him and blinded or killed them with the scantiest suspicion. Historians have given different opinions about Nader Shah’s behavior. Some consider his excessive pessimism as the reason for these behaviors, and others believe Nader Shah’s rich wealth was his intoxication, greed, and loss of intellect’s cause.
How did he pass the way
The last two years of Nader Shah’s life were among the worst years of his rule. Nader Shah had reached a stage of pessimism that would easily kill people and he endeavors hard one day to appease them. The ones who were around Nader Shah killed him to save themselves and the people from the cruelty he committed against the courtiers and the other people.
Nader Shah’s Mausoleum Architecture
Nader Shah’s mausoleum was designed by Houshang Seyhoun, a famous contemporary architect. The main building area of the tomb is 12,000 square meters, and the tomb includes a twelve-step platform, a burial site, and a tent-like covering over it. The tomb hall is a square-shaped building consisting of two red stone walls and two open columns. Nader Shah’s mausoleum located in the corner of the tomb indicates his murder in the tent, and Mashhad rye stone and large pieces of other stones have been applied to show the glory of Nader Shah. The mausoleum is designed like a nomadic tent, as always Nader Shah Afshar was at war and did not have the opportunity to build a palace or mansion for himself, and spent most of his life in a nomadic and desert tent. The purpose of the design style is to show the scene of Nader Shah’s numerous battles and struggles. In addition, the red color of the walls in the sense of war and the different stone protrusions of the columnar walls represent the various rare battles of the king. The materials used in the columns and walls show Nader Shah’s toughness and determination, and the entrance columns are designed as a symbol of the soldiers guarding in front of the tent. There is also a grand statue of Nader Shah riding a rebellious horse accompanied by three soldiers.
Do not forget the Naderi museum when visiting the garden and tomb. The museum consists of two halls. One of the halls is the Weapons Museum, where the relics of different periods of Persian history are kept, and the other hall is related to Nader Shah’s remains.
The First Hall
This hall belongs to the era of Nader Shah, representing a variety of weapons, Nader Shah’s paintings, and war scenes. In addition, equestrian items such as horse saddles from the Afshar period to the Qajar period, manuscripts, the most famous of which is the history of Naderi, and two swords belonging to Nader can also be seen in the first hall. One is with the carved word of Sultan Nader, and another sword is the one that was given to him by the Persian nation in 1736 AD on the day of Nader’s coronation.
The Second Hall
This hall was opened in 1994, showcasing paintings that introduce Nader Shah and his mausoleum. You can see all kinds of coins, ancient and anthropological objects, dishes, and other donated objects from the Safavid period to the contemporary period in this hall.
The Tomb of Colonel Mohammad Taqi Khan Pessian
The garden of Naderi Museum consists of other parts too. The tomb of Colonel Mohammad Taghi Khan Pessian is in the northern part of the garden. He was one of the prominent soldiers of the Qajar period; in fact, he was the first person who managed to pass pilot training, and he was the first Iranian who learned piloting. He established an autonomous government in Khorasan, but Qavam al-Saltanah suppressed him.